Some considerations for removing tritium
Some considerations for removing tritium from nuclear sewage in Japan
-soliciting cooperation with the University Chemistry Department
Japan wants to discharge Fukushima nuclear sewage into the ocean, causing a great uproar in the public. In order to protect the ocean, everyone should find a way to solve this problem together. This Fukushima nuclear sewage is different from the waste water of other normal nuclear power plants. It contains not only heavy tritium water, but also a variety of radioactive substances. My "D pump vacuum evaporation method" can convert sewage into distilled water at low cost (see This forum), the concentrated radioactive material is easy to preserve in a small amount of residual liquid. The boiling point of tritium-containing heavy water is close to that of ordinary water, and the ordinary evaporation method cannot be separated well. We have discussed how to reduce the tritium-containing heavy water in the water. The methods considered include adding "distillation tray", "membrane separation" and "adsorbent" to the evaporator. The schematic diagram of version 1.9.1 of the evaporator is as follows:
Let's first look at the similar separation methods of "deuterium-containing heavy water" and ordinary water, including distillation electrolysis , membrane separation  and adsorption method . Because from the properties of "tritium-containing heavy water" (specific gravity, molecular volume, boiling point, hydrogen bond, etc.), it should be easier to separate than "deuterium-containing heavy water", where "hydrogen nuclei and deuterons will be separated from the groups in the solution" And water form a hydrogen bond, and for the two, the zero point energy of the hydrogen-oxygen bond is different, and the two show an energy barrier difference of 60 meV. Therefore, it can be inferred that if the proton conducting medium has a stronger hydrogen bond, The separation factor will be larger, which is more conducive to the efficient separation of hydrogen isotopes" , the deuteron is like this, the triton should be similar to the deuteron, so these methods can be borrowed. It is understood that the average activity concentration of tritium in Fukushima nuclear sewage reaches 7.3×105Bq Bq/L (Bq, the unit of radioactivity), which exceeds the emission activity concentration limit of 6×104Bq/L, which is related to Japan Stipulated in regulations. Different from the waste water of a normal nuclear power plant, the Fukushima nuclear sewage is the water used to cool the broken reactor. In addition to heavy water containing tritium, it also contains carbon-14, cesium-137, cesium-134, strontium-90, cobalt-60, and iodine-129. , Ruthenium-106 and other radioactive materials are all exceeding the standard, so they must be processed and cannot be easily discharged into the sea. The distillation method can easily remove radioactive materials other than tritium-containing heavy water. In particular, the cost of "D Pump Vacuum Evaporation" is very low and should be recommended. It is safer to distill the nuclear sewage at low cost first. Although the radioactivity of tritium-containing heavy water exceeds the standard, in terms of physical quantity, the current tritium content in the sewage stored at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is 3.4 patabeks. Theoretically speaking, if they are gathered together, it is equivalent to 57 ml, which accounts for a small proportion of the total sewage .
I remember reading an article in the first few years that said "distillation at low temperature and low pressure can improve separation efficiency", because the computer was infected with a virus, and after reinstallation, the source was no longer found. "D pump vacuum evaporation" is carried out at low pressure (less than 0.5 atmosphere) and low temperature (about 50°C), should we see if there is such an effect? I want to do some exploratory work on the "Distillation Tray" in the evaporation chamber, and at the same time place a strong hydrogen bond "adsorbent" in the evaporation chamber to observe the effect on the distillation and see the change in the content of tritium-containing heavy water in the distillate . According to the observations in previous work, the phenomenon in the reaction of chemical substances when it is found that "very trace amounts" is not exactly the same as the law of constants. It is necessary to carefully observe the physical and chemical effects of such a low content of "Tritium-Containing Heavy Water" in distillation and adsorbents. which performed. These require experiments. I have no conditions. I need to cooperate with the chemistry department of the university. The university in Boston is given priority. If you consider the need for a small amount of Fukushima nuclear sewage test, the chemistry department of a university in Japan is also good. This test is very simple. It can be done with glass evaporating flasks and plastic tubes that are commonly used in chemical laboratories, and the cost is very small.
If the tritium in the distillate still exceeds the standard, it can be tested and then adsorbed with a long adsorbent  to reach the level where it can be discharged. It is recommended that more people study this topic, not only to solve the problem in Japan, but also to further reduce the tritium content for normal nuclear power plant wastewater discharge. Please correct and help netizens for these ideas.
Version 2.0 of the evaporator with better effect is ready to continue discussions with collaborators in order to leave some room for the intellectual property rights of latecomers.
Although I am 82 years old, I am still willing to pass on some ideas to young people free of charge, relay experiments, and contribute the residual heat to the society. The epidemic is so serious, I hope those who are interested will contact firstname.lastname@example.org as soon as possible.
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