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《Live 互动英语》 2020年 11月号 No. 235
送交者: icemessenger[♂☆★★★SuperMod★★★☆♂] 于 2020-11-28 22:09 已读 569 次  

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Animals Get Sunburned, Too 6park.com

動物也會曬傷 6park.com

There’s nothing quite as enjoyable as having a day out in the fresh air and sunshine, but if you’re not careful, it can come at a cost—sunburn. You might be surprised to learn that it isn’t only humans who get sunburned, though; this is a problem that exists throughout the animal kingdom. 6park.com

Most animals have fur, feathers, or scales to protect themselves from the harmful rays of the sun; however, hairless animals such as elephants, hippos, and pigs are particularly at risk of sunburn. It’s no surprise, then, that many of these animals have developed their own adaptations to protect their skin. 6park.com

Pigs, for example, like to roll in the mud. This behavior isn’t a dirty habit; rather, the coating of mud keeps them cool in hot weather and prevents damage from strong sunlight. Similarly, elephants throw sand on their backs and heads for use as a kind of natural sunblock. Hippos, on the other hand, have developed a physical adaptation—they produce a red-colored substance around their eyes and ears which acts as a natural sunscreen by absorbing ultraviolet light. 6park.com

沒有什麼事比在新鮮空氣的陽光下度過一天更令人愉快的了,但如果你不小心的話,可能會付出代價——曬傷。不過,你可能會很驚訝知道不只人類會曬傷;這是整個動物界都存在的問題。 6park.com

大多數的動物都有毛、羽毛或鱗片來保護自己免受太陽有害射線的傷害;然而,無毛動物像是大象、河馬和豬尤其有曬傷的危險。因此,這些動物中有許多都發展出自己的適應變化來保護皮膚就不足為奇。 6park.com

舉例來說,豬喜歡在泥巴裡翻滾。這個行為並不是骯髒的習慣;確切來說,一層泥巴讓牠們在大熱天裡保持涼爽,並預防烈日照射下的傷害。同樣地,大象把沙子扔到牠們背上和頭上,作為一種天然的防曬霜。另一方面,河馬發展出一種身體的適應變化——牠們的眼睛和耳朵周圍會產生一種紅色物質,藉由吸收紫外線作為一種天然的防曬霜。 6park.com

Land animals aren’t alone in having trouble with sunburn. Whales and dolphins also suffer from this problem. In recent years, scientists have found increasing amounts of sunburn in blue whales—which spend a lot of time at the ocean surface—likely due to climate change. It’s a good thing that blue whales have a special adaptation that allows their cells to repair skin damage very effectively, so they don’t often get skin cancer. 6park.com

Zebra fish produce a chemical called gadusol that protects against the sun’s rays. In fact, scientists have discovered that other animals such as shrimp, sea turtles, and chickens also carry the gene for producing this natural sunscreen. 6park.com

It isn’t just wild animals that need protection from the sun. Hairless pets or those with white fur are naturally more sensitive to sunlight. So you should take steps to protect your pet outdoors. You can buy animal sunscreens at many pet stores or put clothing on your pet for outdoor play, for example. When it comes to sunburn, whether for people or animals, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure! 6park.com

並非只有陸地動物有曬傷的問題。鯨魚和海豚也有這個問題。近年來,科學家發現越來越多的藍鯨曬傷(牠們花很多時間在海面上),可能是因為氣候變遷的關係。還好藍鯨擁有一種特殊的適應變化,讓牠們的細胞能夠非常有效地修復皮膚損傷,因此牠們不常罹患皮膚癌。 6park.com

斑馬魚會產生一種叫作gadusol的化學物質,可以保護不受陽光傷害。事實上,科學家發現其他動物像是蝦、海龜和雞也都具有製造這種天然防曬霜的基因。 6park.com

不是只有野生動物需要保護不受太陽傷害。無毛的寵物或是白毛的寵物天生就對陽光更為敏感。因此,到戶外時你應該要採取措施來保護你的寵物。例如,你可以在許多寵物店買動物的防曬乳,或是在戶外遊玩時替寵物穿上衣服。說到曬傷,無論是對人還是動物,預防都勝於治療!


文件大小: 38.7 MB


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https://vk.com/doc322500912_579234771?hash=37da88719be0bda1bd&dl=beab93cd77ddc25c94 6park.com



6park.com

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